C

From Pojmanym

Jump to: navigation, search

[edit] calico

CAL-i-ko

noun

Etymology

Calicut, India

Definition

cotton cloth imported from India b British : a plain white cotton fabric that is heavier than muslin c : any of various cheap cotton fabrics with figured patterns a blotched or spotted animal; especially : one that is predominantly white with red and black patches (adjective) [1]

[edit] calliope

kuh-LYE-uh-pee

noun

Etymology

after Calliope, ninth and chief muse of eloquence and epic poetry [2]

Definition

a keyboard musical instrument resembling an organ and consisting of a series of whistles sounded by steam or compressed air [3]

[edit] callithump

KAL-uh-thump

noun

Etymology

Callithump is an Americanism that came into being in the 19th century. Back then, callithumpians were boisterous roisterers who had their own makeshift New Year's parade. Their band instruments consisted of crude noisemakers — pots pounded on, tin horns tooted, and cowbells clanged to ring in the New Year. The antecedent of "callithumpians" is an 18th-century English dialect term for another noisy group, the Gallithumpians, who made a rumpus on election days in southern England. Callithump has managed to gain a fair amount of respectability since the old days — now it can refer to a good old-fashioned parade. [4]

Definition

a noisy boisterous band or parade [5]


[edit] cappuccino

cap-puh-CHEE-no

noun

Etymology

The Capuchin order of friars, established after 1525, played an important role in bringing Catholicism back to Reformation Europe. Its Italian name came from the long pointed cowl, or cappuccino, derived from cappuccio, “hood,” that was worn as part of the order's habit. The French version of cappuccino was capuchin (now capucin), from which came English Capuchin. The name of this pious order was later used as the name (first recorded in English in 1785) for a type of monkey with a tuft of black cowl-like hair. In Italian cappuccino went on to develop another sense, “espresso coffee mixed or topped with steamed milk or cream,” so called because the color of the coffee resembled the color of the habit of a Capuchin friar. The first use of cappuccino in English is recorded in 1948. [6]

Definition

espresso coffee mixed or topped with steamed milk or cream [7]


[edit] carpaccio

kar-PAH-chee-oh

noun

Etymology

Created in 1950 by Venetian restaurateur Giuseppe Cipriani, carpaccio is named after Vittore Carpaccio, the Renaissance painter. Cipriani created the dish for the Countess Amalia Nani Mocenigo, who had been under doctor’s orders to avoid cooked meats. According to Cipriani’s memoir, he chose to name the dish after Carpaccio because the red in the beef matched the colors found in Carpaccio’s paintings. Recently, some restaurants have begun using the term for similarly prepared non-meat dishes (such as pear carpaccio). [8]

Definition

thinly sliced raw meat or fish served with a sauce -- often used postpositively [9]


[edit] carronade

ka-ruh-NADE

noun

Etymology

after the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Scotland which developed it. [10]

Definition

a short smoothbore, cast iron cannon, similar to a mortar, developed for the Royal Navy. It was designed as a short-range naval weapon with a low muzzle velocity, and is said to have been invented by Lieutenant General Robert Melville in 1759 and developed by Charles Gascoigne, manager of the Carron Company from 1769 to 1779. [11]


[edit] catamite

CAT-uh-mite

noun

Etymology

1593, from L. Catamitus, corruption of Ganymedes, the beloved cup-bearer of Jupiter [12]

Definition

a boy kept by a pederast [13]


[edit] cereal

SEER-ee-ul

noun, adjective

Etymology

originally an adjective (1818), from French céréale, from Latin Cerealis "of grain," originally "of Ceres," from Ceres, Roman goddess of agriculture [14]

Definition

seeds of flowering plants of the grass family cultivated for the food value of their grains, e.g., rice, wheat, sorghum, maize, oat, barley, rye, and millet [15]


[edit] champagne

sham-PAYNE

noun

Etymology

after Champagne, the French district where the wine was originally made. [16]

Definition
  1. a sparkling white wine made in the Champagne district of France, which is traditionally drunk at celebrations.
  2. any sparkling white wine
  3. a pale pinkish-yellow color [17]


[edit] chautauqua

shuh-TAW-kwuh

noun

Etymology

The chautauqua has been aptly described as a cross between a folk-life festival and a community college. The original Chautauqua was started just after the Civil War at Chautauqua Lake in New York state as an assembly for training church workers. Before long the program was broadened to include lectures on a wide variety of subjects, as well as entertainment. The event proved so successful that it spawned other chautauquas throughout the United States, each offering a mix of education, entertainment, and on occasion, even religion. The chautauquas are now largely a colorful fragment of American history, but the original institution at Chautauqua continues to offer an annual program of performances and lectures. [18]

Definition

any of various traveling shows and local assemblies that flourished in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that provided popular education combined with entertainment in the form of lectures, concerts, and plays [19]


[edit] chauvinism

SHOW-vuh-nizm

noun

Etymology

after the French chauvinisme, from Nicolas Chauvin, character noted for his excessive patriotism and devotion to Napoleon in Théodore and Hippolyte Cogniard's play La Cocarde tricolore (1831) [20]

Definition
  1. excessive or blind patriotism
  2. undue partiality or attachment to a group or place to which one belongs or has belonged
  3. an attitude of superiority toward members of the opposite sex [21]


[edit] chesterfield

CHESS-tur-feeld

noun

Etymology

Lord Chesterfield adapted an overcoat from the old Frock coat, in the nineteenth century. Originally shaped and fly-fronted, the name is given now to most town coats with lapels and set-in sleeves. The same man designed the leather, button-backed sofa which bears his name. [22]

Definition
  1. a single-breasted or double-breasted semifitted overcoat with velvet collar
  2. a davenport usually with upright armrests [23]


[edit] chimera

kye-MEE-rah

noun

Etymology

from Greek mythology, a Chimera is a female fire-breathing monster, typically represented as a combination of a lion's head, goat's body, and serpent's tail [24]

Definition
  1. an organism, organ, or part consisting of two or more tissues of different genetic composition, produced as a result of organ transplant, grafting, or genetic engineering
  2. a substance, such as an antibody, created from the proteins or genes or two different species
  3. an individual who has received a transplant of genetically and immunologically different tissue.
  4. a fanciful mental illusion or fabrication. [25]


[edit] china

CHYE-nuh noun

Etymology

after the country name, China, from which porcelain porcelain was imported [26]

Definition
  1. vitreous porcelain wares (as dishes, vases, or ornaments) for domestic use
  2. earthenware or porcelain tableware [27]


[edit] christen

Etymology

after Christian, from the from Latin christianus [28]

Definition
  1. to baptize
  2. to name at baptism
  3. to name or dedicate (as a ship) by a ceremony suggestive of baptism
  4. to use for the first time [29]


[edit] chyron

KYE-ron

noun

Etymology

from the Chyron Corporation, which first developed the technology [30]

Definition

Text graphics which appear at the bottom of a screen used to describe time, place, or name of person on screen; can also describe the technology used to add the text to the bottom of the screen [31]


[edit] cicerone

sih-suh-ROH-nee

noun

Etymology

Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 - 43 B.C.) was renowned in Rome as a statesman, lawyer, and writer, and he is remembered today for his skills as an orator and rhetorician. The Ciceronian style of rhetoric placed special emphasis on the rhythms and cadences of phrases and sentences and their ability to appeal to the speaker's audience. It is believed that Cicero's eloquence and learning influenced the use of his Italian name, "Cicerone," to refer to sightseeing guides, themselves known for their talkativeness and eloquence, and later, to persons who serve as mentors or tutors to others. [32]

Definition
  1. a guide who conducts sightseers
  2. mentor, tutor [33]


[edit] cliometrics

klee-oh-ME-tricks

noun

Etymology

in Greek mythology, Clio or Kleio is the muse of history [34]

Definition

the application of methods developed in other fields (as economics, statistics, and data processing) to the study of history [35]


[edit] cognac

KONE-yak

noun

Etymology

1594,from wine produced in Cognac, the region in western France [36]

Definition

a brandy from the departments of Charente and Charente-Maritime distilled from white wine [37]


[edit] condom

CON-dum

noun

Etymology

1706, traditionally named for a British physician, Dr. Condom, during the reign of Charles II, but there is no evidence for that. Also spelled condam, quondam, which suggests it may be from the Italian guantone, from guanto "a glove." [38]

Definition
  1. a sheath commonly of rubber worn over the penis (as to prevent conception or venereal infection during coitus)
  2. a device that is designed to be inserted into the vagina before coitus and that resembles in form and function the condom used by males [39]


[edit] conibear trap

KON-i-bear TRAP

noun

Etymology

after Canadian Frank Conibear who first constructed this type of trap [40]

Definition

a trap consisting of two metal rectangles hinged together midway on the long side to open and close. One jaw has a trigger which is normally baited. The opposite jaw has a catch which holds the trap open. [41]


[edit] corybantic

kor-ee-BAN-tik or kahr-ee-BAN-tik

adjective

Etymology

In Phrygia (Asia Minor) in the fifth century B.C. Cybele (also called Cybebe or Agdistis), was the "Great Mother of the Gods." According to Oriental and Greco-Roman mythology, she was the mother of it all: gods, humans, animals . . . even nature itself. The Corybants were Cybele's attendants and priests, and they worshipped her with an unrestrained frenzy of wildly emotional processions, rites, and dances. [42]

Definition
  1. like or in the spirit of a Corybant
  2. wild, frenzied [43]


[edit] cretin

KREE-tin

noun

Etymology

1779, from French Alpine dialect crestin, a dwarfed and deformed idiot [44] Used because even a deformed person was considered a human being and therefore eligible to be baptized and hence a Christian.

Definition
  1. often offensive, one afflicted with cretinism
  2. a stupid, vulgar, or insensitive person
  3. a clod or lout [45]


[edit] curie

KYUR-ee

noun

Etymology

1910, from Pierre Curie (1859-1906), who with his wife, Marie (1867-1934), discovered radium [46]

Definition
  1. a unit quantity of any radioactive nuclide in which 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations occur per second
  2. a unit of radioactivity equal to 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second [47]


[edit] cynosure

SIE-nuh-shoor or SIN-uh-shoor

noun

Etymology

Ancient mariners noted that all the stars in the heavens seem to revolve around Polaris, and they relied on the North Star to guide their navigation. The Greeks called that bright star, the last one in the handle of the Little Dipper Kynosoura, a term that comes from a phrase meaning "dog's tail". [48]

Definition
  1. the northern constellation Ursa Minor
  2. the North Star
  3. one that serves to direct or guide
  4. center of attraction or attention [49]
Personal tools