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[edit] bakelite

BAY-kuh-lite

noun

Etymology

named after its Belgian inventor, chemist L. H. Baekeland c.1909 [1]

Definition

Bakelite is a synthetic resin used for molding items that were previously done of celluloid or hard rubber. One of the original uses was for pool balls. It is collectible in all its forms including jewelry, buttons, radio cases, lamps, dresser sets and many more items. It was used commercially for parts especially in electrical wiring. ([2]) Bakelite was the first plastic.

Bakelite is sometimes capitalized.


[edit] balaclava

BAL-uh-KLA-vuh

noun

Etymology

named for Balaclava, a village near Sebastopol, Russia, site of a battle on October 25, 1854, in the Crimean War probably because it was worn by infantry there [3]

Definition

a knit cap for the head and neck [4] [5]


[edit] balkanize

BALL-kuh-nize

verb

Etymology

1920, in reference to the Baltic states; said to have been coined by English editor James Louis Garvin (1868-1947), but Toynbee credited it to "German Socialists." Either way, the reference is to the political situation in the Balkans c.1878-1913, when the European section of the Ottoman Empire split up into small, warring nations. [6]

Definition

to divide a territory into small, hostile states [7]


[edit] band-aid

BAND-ade

noun, adjective

Etymology

from the brand name, Band-Aid, for Johnson & Johnson's line of adhesive bandages and related products [8]

Definition
  1. a makeshift, limited, or temporary aid or solution that does not satisfy the basic or long-range need
  2. serving as a makeshift, limited, or temporary aid or solution [9]


[edit] bantingism

BAN-ting-izm

noun

Etymology

The first low-carbohydrate diet book was written in 1863 by William Banting as a service to his fellow man. [10]

Definition

A method of reducing corpulence by avoiding food containing much farinaceous, saccharine, or oily matter [11]


[edit] bardolater

bar-DOLL-uh-ter

noun

Etymology

from The Bard of Avon, an epithet of Shakespeare [12]

Definition

a person who idolizes Shakespeare [13]


[edit] bauxite

BAWK-site

noun

Etymology

In 1822 the mineral bauxite was discovered near Les Baux by the geologist Pierre Berthier. It was subsequently mined extensively in the area, but by the end of the 20th century had been completely worked out; France now imports most of its bauxite from west Africa. [14]

Definition

an impure mixture of earthy hydrous aluminum oxides and hydroxides that is the principal source of aluminum [15]


[edit] bedlam

BED-lum

noun

Etymology

a popular name for the Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem in London, which served as a lunatic asylum from ca. 1400 [16]

Definition
  1. a place, scene, or state of uproar and confusion
  2. madman, lunatic (obsolete) [17]


[edit] benedict

BEN-uh-dikt

noun

Etymology

Benedick is the chief male character in Shakespeare's play Much Ado About Nothing. Throughout the play, both Benedick and his female counterpart Beatrice exchange barbed comments and profess to detest the very idea of marriage, but the story eventually culminates in their marriage to each other. [18]

Definition

a newly married man who has long been a bachelor [19]


[edit] bentonite

BEN-tun-ite

noun

Etymology

1895–1900; named after Fort Benton, Montana. [20] Bentonite is not a mineral, but a commercial name for montmorillonite, the active mineral in many medicinal clays. [21]

Definition
  1. a light-colored clay that expands in water that is used in oil drilling, paper, pharmaceutical industries [22]
  2. a clay formed by the decomposition of volcanic ash, having the ability to absorb large quantities of water and to expand to several times its normal volume [23]


[edit] bikini

bi-KEE-nee

noun

Etymology

from French coinage, 1947, named for U.S. atomic bomb test of June 1946 on Bikini, Marshall Islands atoll. Various explanations for the name have been suggested, none convincingly, the best being an analogy of the explosive force of the bomb and the impact of the bathing suit style on men's libidos [24]

Definition
  1. a very brief, close-fitting two-piece bathing suit worn by women
  2. very brief, close-fitting bathing suit worn by men
  3. brief underpants that reach to the hips rather than to the waist, often used in the plural [25]


[edit] billingsgate

BIL-ingz-gayt

noun

Etymology

From the time of the Roman occupation until the early 1980s, Billingsgate was a fish market in London, England, notorious for the crude language that resounded through its stalls. In fact, the fish merchants of Billingsgate were so famous for their swearing that their feats of vulgar language were recorded in British chronicler Raphael Holinshed's 1577 account of King Leir [26]

Definition

coarsely abusive language [27]


[edit] blarney

BLAR-nee

noun

Etymology

The village of Blarney in County Cork, Ireland, is home to Blarney Castle, and in the southern wall of that edifice lies the famous Blarney Stone. Legend has it that anyone who kisses the Blarney Stone will gain the gift of skillful flattery, but that gift must be attained at the price of some limber maneuvering -- you have to lie down and hang your head over a precipice to reach and kiss the stone. One story claims the word “blarney” gained popularity as a word for “flattery” after Queen Elizabeth I of England used it to describe the flowery (but apparently less than honest) cajolery of McCarthy Mor, who was then the lord of Blarney Castle. [28]

Definition
  1. skillful flattery
  2. blandishment
  3. nonsense, humbug [29]


[edit] bloomers

BLUE-murz

noun

Etymology

1851, named for U.S. feminist reformer Amelia Jenks Bloomer (1818-1894), who promoted them. [30]

Definition
  1. a costume for women consisting of a skirt over long loose trousers gathered closely about the ankles
  2. full loose trousers gathered at the knee formerly worn by women for athletics
  3. underpants of similar design worn chiefly by girls and women [31]


[edit] bogart

BOH-gart

verb

Etymology

The term "bogart" was first heard in reference to a fairy in popular Yorkshire folk-myth. This fairy was known to be extremely hostile and mischievous. Oddly enough, that definition was not derived from the actions of the mythical bogart. Instead, the verb "to bogart" was coined in English because of the tough, bully roles that were played by Humphrey Bogart in movies. [32] The word appears in the 1968 song "Don't Bogart Me" by The Fraternity of Man which appeared in Easy Rider. [33]

Definition
  1. bully, intimidate
  2. to use or consume without sharing [34]


[edit] bohemian

boh-HE-me-yun

noun, adjective

Etymology

The modern sense is from the region Bohemia which is part of the current Czech Republic. Since the fifteenth century it was used in French to mean "gypsy" because tthey were believed falsely to have come from there, though their first appearance in Western Europe may have been from there, or from association with Bohemian heretics. It was popularized by Henri Murger's 1845 story collection "Scenes de la Vie de Boheme," the basis of Puccini's La Bohème. [35]

Definition
  1. a vagabond or wanderer
  2. a gypsy
  3. a person (as a writer or an artist) living an unconventional life usually in a colony with others [36]

[edit] bombinins

bom-BIN-in

noun

Etymology

A family of hydrophobic peptides, obtained from the skin secretions of the European frog, Bombina variegata. [37]

[edit] bowdlerize

BOWD-luh-rize

verb

Etymology

1836, from Thomas Bowdler (1754-1825), English editor who in 1818 published a notorious expurgated Shakespeare, "in which those words and expressions are omitted which cannot with propriety be read aloud in a family." [38]

Definition

to expurgate (a written work) by removing or modifying passages considered vulgar or objectionable [39]


[edit] boycott

BOY-caht

noun, verb

Etymology

Charles C. Boycott (1832–1897) seems to have become a household word because of his strong sense of duty to his employer. An Englishman and former British soldier, Boycott was the estate agent of the Earl of Erne in County Mayo, Ireland. The earl was one of the absentee landowners who as a group held most of the land in Ireland. Boycott was chosen in the fall of 1880 to be the test case for a new policy advocated by Charles Parnell, an Irish politician who wanted land reform. Any landlord who would not charge lower rents or any tenant who took over the farm of an evicted tenant would be given the complete cold shoulder by Parnell's supporters. Boycott refused to charge lower rents and ejected his tenants. At this point members of Parnell's Irish Land League stepped in, and Boycott and his family found themselves isolated—without servants, farmhands, service in stores, or mail delivery. Boycott's name was quickly adopted as the term for this treatment, not just in English but in other languages such as French, Dutch, German, and Russian. [40]

Defintion

to abstain from or act together in abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with as an expression of protest or disfavor or as a means of coercion [41]


[edit] braggadocio

brag-uh-DOH-see-oh

noun

Etymology

The English poet Edmund Spenser originally created Braggadocio as a personification of boasting in his epic poem The Faerie Queene. As early as 1594, about four years after the poem was published, English speakers began using the name as general term for any blustering blowhard. [42]

Defintion
  1. a loud arrogant boaster
  2. empty boasting
  3. arrogant pretension
  4. cockiness [43]


[edit] brumby

BRUM-bee

noun

Etymology

perhaps from James Brumby, early Australian farrier [44]

Definition

a wild horse, especially one that has escaped from a farm (Australian English) [45]


[edit] bugaboo

BUH-guh-BOO

Etymology

1740, probably an alteration of bugbear, but connected by Chapman with Bugibu, demon in the Old French poem "Aliscans" from 1141, which is perhaps of Celtic origin (cf. Cornish bucca-boo, from bucca "bogle, goblin") [46]

Definition
  1. an object of obsessive, usually exaggerated fear or anxiety
  2. a recurring or persistent problem [47]


[edit] bugger

BUG-ger

noun, verb

Etymology

from Medieval Latin, Bulgarus a Bulgarian, so called from Catholic bigoted notions of the sex lives of Eastern Orthodox Christians or of the sect of heretics that was prominent there in the 11th century [48]

Definition
  1. a fellow or lad (used affectionately or abusively), as in "a cute little bugger"
  2. any object or thing
  3. a sodomite
  4. a despicable or contemptible person, especially a man
  5. an annoying or troublesome thing or situation
  6. to sodomize
  7. damn, as in "bugger the cost—I want the best"
  8. to trick, deceive, or take advantage of [49]


[edit] burgundy

BUR-gun-dee

noun

Etymology;

from Bourgogne, a former province of eastern France that is famous for its wines [50]

Definition;
  1. wine, of many varieties, red and white, mostly still, full, and dry, produced in the Burgundy region
  2. red wine with similar characteristics made elsewhere
  3. a grayish red-brown to dark blackish-purple color [51]


[edit] burke

BURK

verb

Etymology

after William Burke (1792-1829), Irish-born grave robber and murderer [52]

Definition;
  1. to murder without leaving a trace on the body
  2. to get rid of, silence, or suppress [53]


[edit] burtonising

BURR-tun-AYE-zing

verb

Etymology

from Burton-on-Trent, the process was done to imitate water from this place [54]

Definition

the process of treating water in order to add calcium carbonate to it [55]


[edit] byzantine

BIZ-un-teen

adjective

Etymology

from the ancient city of Byzantium, or relating to the Byzantine Empire, or belonging to the style of architecture developed from the fifth century A.D. in the Byzantine Empire, characterized especially by a central dome resting on a cube formed by four round arches and their pendentives and by the extensive use of surface decoration, especially veined marble panels, low relief carving, and colored glass mosaics. [56]

Definition
  1. of, relating to, or characterized by intrigue; scheming or devious
  2. highly complicated; intricate and involved [57]
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